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History


      The history of what today is the State of Veracruz can be divided into three lengthy and equally
      important periods, covering a timespan of nearly 3,500 years. These periods are as follows:

      The pre-Colombian: 1200 B.C. to 1519 A.D.
      The Colonial: 1519 to 1821 A.D.
      The independence: 1821 A.D. to the present

      Several indigenous cultures flourished in Veracruz in the pre-Colombian period, cultures still carefully
      studied by archaeologists. The principal cultures were the Olmecas, the Huastecos and the
      Totonacas. Impressive ruins of the Totonacas can still be visited throughout the state, with the
      principal archaeological sites at El Tajin and Zempoala. The state capital of Xalapa is justifiably
      famous for its archaeological museum.

Orography Of The State

Veracruz state offers an extremely diverse orographic conformation, due primarily to the eastern Sierra Madre mountain range which crosses the entire length of the state, at times touching its coastal zones. 
The eastern Sierra Madre in the south, becomes the Tuxtla Sierra.
Towards the central part of the state, near the boundary with the State of Puebla, can be found some of Mexico's tallest mountains, such as the Orizaba Peak, which has an altitude of 18,700 feet above sea level and the Cofre de Perote, with an altitude of 14,049 feet above sea level. Both are inactive volcanoes and form part of the volcanic chain which crosses the entire country along with the Malinche, Nevado de Toluca, Iztaccihuatl, Popocatepec and Nevado de Colima. 
The Huasteca mountain zone is located in the northern part of the state, as well as the mountain regions of Huayacocotla and Chicontepec.

Hydrology Of The State

Veracruz state has some of the country's most important hydrological basins, derived from the rainfall and snow runoffs from the eastern Sierra Madre. As one direct result, close to 35% of Mexico's water supply is found in the state. The most important hydrological basins emanate from the Panuco, Coatzacoalcos, Papaloapan, Tuxpan and Antigua Rivers. 
A number of the rivers crossing the state are navigable by small  craft. However, given the topographical conditions of the state only the Panuco can be used for hydroelectric power generation. The Panuco is the site for the state's most important flood control and  irrigation dam and hydroelectric complex, the Chicayan. 
Veracruz, in addition to its rivers, is home to a number of important lakes, lagoons and reservoirs. One of these, Catemaco, is among the state's principal tourist attractions.

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